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World Class Manufacturing terms

Posted by vietnamwcm trên 15 Tháng Tám 2008

Some World Class Manufacturing terms with descriptions in English:

5’S: Is a highly successful manufacturing technique to promote clean, organized and disciplined working environments, which by themselves are more efficient, and which also provide the foundation for more advanced techniques.

Kaizen: The philosophy of continual improvement, that every process can and should be continually evaluated and improved in terms of time required, resources used, resultant quality and other aspects relevant to the process. When applied to the workplace, Kaizen means continuing improvement involving everyone – managers and workers alike. Kaizen is not limited to manufacturing systems only. It also means continuing improvement in personal life, home life, social life, and working life.

Kaizen Events:
A concentrated effort, in which a team plans and implements a major process change or changes to quickly achieve a quantum improvement in performance. Participants generally represent various functions and perspectives, and may include non-plant personnel.

Kanban: A signaling device that gives instruction for production or conveyance of items in a pull system.

Value Stream Mapping: A pencil-and-paper tool used: a) to follow a product or information (or both) activity path from beginning to end and draw a visual representation of every process (value and non-value) in the material and information flows. b) then to design a future state map which has waste removed and creates more flow and c) to end up with a detailed implementation plan for the future state.

Visual Factory: An environment where it is easy for everyone to ‘see’ the current status of the process or ‘system’ and the visual gives immediate information to the individuals to understand ‘how the operation is doing’.

TPM (Total Productive Maintenance): A series of methods, originally to ensure that every machine in a production process is always able to perform its required tasks so that production is never interrupted.

SPC (Statistical Process Control): SPC relies on measuring variation in manufacturing output and setting control limits based on observations of variations arising solely from common causes. A process that is “in control” is expected to generate output that is within the control limits. If the process produces an “out of control” point, one would not necessarily assume the process had moved to an “out of control” state, but would try to locate the special cause(s) for this condition.

Pre-Control: Pre-control is a simplification of the control chart and divides the specification width into four parts, the areas between these parts are termed the Green, Yellow and Red zones, with corresponding go, caution and stop meanings. Often control of a process is made by checking the product that the process makes. We are trying to steer a boat by staring at its wake.

6 Sigma: Approximately 3 errors per million. Six Sigma means the elimination of variance in the process in order to allow flow using the necessary analytical tools and process.

DMAIC: The DMAIC process is the heart of Six Sigma. DMAIC refers to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of the company’s Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC is an acronym for five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.

LEAN: Lean is simply a thought process, not a tool, used to look at your business whether it is manufacturing, service or any other activity where you have a supplier and a customer/receiver. The key thought processes within Lean are identifying ‘waste’ from the customer perspective and then determining how to eliminate it. Waste is defined as the activity or activities that a customer would not want to pay for and/or that add no value to the product or service from the customer’s perspective. Once waste has been identified in the Current State, a plan is formulated to reach the Future State in an effective manner that encompasses the entire system.

Process Capability: Process capability compares the output of an in-control process to the specification limits by using capability indices. The comparison is made by forming the ratio of the spread between the process specifications (the specification “width”) to the spread of the process values, as measured by 6 process standard deviation units (the process “width”).

OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness): The overall performance of a single piece of equipment or even an entire factory, will always be governed by the cumulative impact of the three OEE factors: Availability, Performance Rate and Quality Rate. OEE is a percentage derived by multiplication of the three ratios for the factors mentioned above. The OEE percentage is used for analysis and benchmarking.

Project Management:
The discipline of defining and achieving targets while optimizing the use of resources

HOSHIN: Hoshin Kanri is a systems approach to the management of change in critical business processes using a step-by-step planning, implementation, and review process

Line Balancing: Line balancing consists of distributing work required to assemble a product in mass or series production on an assembly line among a set of work stations. Several constraints and different objectives may be considered for single lines, U-shaped lines, mixed model and mixed sequencing lines.

Toyota Production System: The Toyota Production System (TPS) is the framework and philosophy organizing the manufacturing facilities at Toyota and the interaction of these facilities with the suppliers and customers. The main goal of the TPS is to eliminate waste.

Poke-Yoke: A mistake proofing device or procedure to prevent a defect throughout the system or process.

Gemba Kanri (Self Directed Work Teams): Nearly autonomous teams of empowered employees, including hourly workers that share a common workspace and/or responsibility for a particular process or process segment.

TQM (Total Quality Management): A systematic customer focused approach to continuous performance improvement. A philosophy and set of guiding principles which represent the foundation for continuously improving the organization through employee involvement. The application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve the materials and services supplied to and by an organization and all the processes within the organization and the degree to which the needs of the customer are met. The integration of fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools, under a disciplined approach to focus on continuous improvement.

ISO 9001: An international quality process auditing program, based on a series of standards published by the International Organization of Standardization in Geneva, Switzerland, through which manufacturing plants receive certification attesting that their stated quality processes are adhered to in practice.

QS-9000: QS-9000 is a set of Quality System requirements recently adopted by members of the automotive industry

Takt Time: The available production time divided by the rate of customer demand. Takt time sets the pace of production to match the rate of customer demand and becomes the heartbeat of any lean system.

FMEA (Failure Mode & Effect Analysis): A procedure used to identify and assess risks associated with potential product or process failure modes.

CP / CPK: A statistical calculation used to indicate how well a design tolerance compares with the normal process variation (defined as +/-3s) and accounts for any difference between the design target and the actual process mean.

Cycle time: How long it takes a process to complete the total task or activity before starting again.

Rolled Throughput Yield: The probability of being able to pass a unit of product or service through the entire process defect-free

WCM (World Class Manufacturing): World class manufacturing is the philosophy of being the best, the fastest, and the lowest cost producer of a product or service. It implies the constant improvement of products, processes, and services to remain an industry leader and provide the best choice for customers, regardless of where they are in the process.

Work Standardization: A precise description of each work activity specifying cycle time, takt time, the work sequence of specific tasks, and the minimum inventory of parts on hand needed to conduct the activity.

Cause & Effect:
To provide a pictorial display of a list in which you identify and organize possible causes of problems, or factors needed to ensure success of some effort.
It is an effective tool that allows people to easily see the relationship between factors to study processes, situations, and for planning

SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Dies): The process that allows a person to reduce the time to change a production process over from making one part or product to another part or product. The process to reduce the time elapsed from the last good part A to the first good part B at the same station or process. This process must take less than ten minutes (hence single minute).

Heijunka: The act of leveling the variety and/or volume of items produced at a process over a period of time. Used to avoid excessive batching of product types and/or volume fluctuations, especially at a pacemaker process.

One Piece Flow: Each process (in the office or plant setting) makes or completes only the one piece that the next process needs, and the batch size is one – single-piece flow or one-piece flow – opposite of batch-and-queue.

Flexible Manufacturing System: Integrates combinations of various types of capital equipment, primarily in metal-cutting applications. A system is flexible if it is capable of processing a number of different work-pieces simultaneously and automatically, with the machines in the system carrying out the system’s operation in any sequence.

JIT (Just In Time): Producing or conveying only the items that are needed by the next process when they are needed and in the quantity needed. Can even be used between facilities or companies.

Lead Time: The time that elapses between receiving an order and shipping the product or service to the customer.


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